作家專欄

飼 糧 中 含 水 合 鈉 鈣 矽 酸 鋁

對 抗 土 番 鴨 黃 麴 毒 素 症 之 影 響

鄭永祥(1)     林育安(1)    李德南(1)     吳輔祐(1)

收件日期:83年10月7日;接受日期:83年11月24日

(1)國立宜蘭農工專科學校畜產科。

摘   要:

        水合鈉鈣矽酸鋁(HSCAS)為混合飼料使用之抗結塊劑,添加於土番鴨飼糧中,以評估其對土番鴨黃麴毒素症之改善效果。試驗使用400隻土番鴨分成五處理組,黃麴毒素(AFB1) 0 ppb+0% HSCAS (對照組),AFB1 0 ppb+2% HSCAS,AFB1 400 ppb+0%HSCAS,AFB1 400 ppb+0.5% HSCAS,AFB1 400 ppb+2% HSCAS,採高床欄飼,試驗為期21天。試驗飼糧粗蛋白質為18.8%,代謝能為2880 kcal/kg,試驗期間飼料及飲水均自由採食。鴨隻每週秤重一次,試驗結束時採血並測定心、肝、脾、胰臟重量。

        AFB1 400ppb+0% HSCAS組在隻日採食量、飼料利用效率及平均每日增重顯著較其他各處理組為差(P<0.05,但含AFB1 0ppb+2% HSCAS或AFB1 400ppb+2% HSCAS與對照組比較時,無顯著差異。血中GPT及GOT活性,以AFB1 400 ppb+0%HSCAS顯著高於AFB1 0 ppb+ 2% HSCAS及對照組。且AFB1 400ppb+0.5% HSCAS、AFB1 400ppb+ 2% HSCAS與對照組間亦無顯著差異。相對臟器重量方面,AFB1 400ppb+0% HSCAS之心、肝、脾、胰臟均呈顯著(P<0.05)較AFB1 0ppb+2% HSCAS、對照組及AFB1 400ppb+2% HSCAS為重,但AFB1 400 ppb+0.5%HSCAS於心、肝、脾臟重量仍較2% HSCAS和對照組為重。黃麴毒素B1組織殘留方面,在胸肌中各處理組均量少無法檢出,肝臟中僅AFB1 400ppb+0% HSCAS組及AFB1 400 ppb+0.5% HSCAS組可測得微量黃麴毒素B1的殘留。由結果發現飼料中0.5% HSCAS可以降低400ppb AFB1對土番鴨的毒害,而添加2% HSCAS可以改善至與對照組無差異。HSCAS不僅可以作為飼料抗結塊劑,亦可作為土番鴨黃麴毒素中毒預防管理之捷徑(關鍵語:水合鈉鈣矽酸鋁、黃麴毒素症、土番鴨)。

緒   言

        黃麴毒素(Aflatoxins)是一群極毒的化學物質,由黃麴菌屬中Aspergillus flavus和Aspergillus parasiticus所產生的二次性代謝產物,其中以黃麴毒素B1最為普遍且毒性最強。黃麴菌廣泛存在於自然界中,易污染穀物導致動物慢性暴露於黃麴毒素中。黃麴毒素對家禽所造成之毒害,間接影響家禽生產之利潤(Jones et al., 1982;Hamilton, 1984)。鴨隻對黃麴毒素之感受性甚高,以雛鴨之感受性最強,故早期曾以雛鴨做為黃麴毒素之生物檢定(bioassay)(Asplin and Carnaghan, 1961)。

        當飼料中污染黃麴毒素時,去毒的方法頗多;但至今仍無一可以達到大量處理且經濟及實際之可行方法(Doyle et al., 1982;Norred, 1982),近來使用一種非營養性吸附劑,水合鈉鈣矽酸鋁(hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, HSCAS)來控制或和黃麴毒素污染之飼料對家畜禽所造成的為害。此吸附劑應用在雞(Scheideler, 1993)、豬(Harvey et al., 1989)、羊(Harvey et al., 1991)、火雞(Kubena et al., 1991)等均可改善黃麴毒素之毒害,此種選擇性之化學吸附劑,可在腸道內與黃麴毒素緊密結合形成穩定之HSCAS/Aflatoxin複合物,從而降低黃麴毒素之生物可利用性(Phillips et al., 1988)。Kubena et al. (1990a;1991)指出HSCAS可降低AFB1對白肉雞及火雞雛之生長抑制作用與死亡率,據估計每毫克HSCAS可與483nm的AFB1結合。土番鴨是本省最重要之肉用鴨種,邇來消費者之品質意識普遍抬頭,對肉品之安全衛生相當敏感。故本試驗即探討土番鴨餵飼黃麴毒素時,飼糧中HSCAS可否提供諸如對其他家畜禽之保護效果及其對組織中黃麴毒素殘留量的影響。

材料與方法

一、試驗動物與及樣品處理

        試驗土番鴨雛為購自商業性孵化場之一日齡雛鴨,選擇體重近且活力佳者,逢機分配至五處理組:黃麴毒素0 ppb+0% HSCAS (對照組);黃麴毒素0 ppb+2% HSCAS ;黃麴毒素400 ppb+0% HSCAS;黃麴毒素400 ppb+0.5% HSCAS;黃麴毒素400 ppb+2% HSCAS,每組四重複,每重複20隻,公母各半 。試驗鴨隻飼於網狀高床,每欄放置一 250 W紅外線燈泡予以保溫。試驗期0∼3週齡,試驗期間飼料和飲水均自由採食。試驗飼糧含蛋白質18.8%;代謝能2880 kcal/kg (表1)。黃麴毒素與HSCAS均直接外加於試驗飼糧。

表一   試        驗         基        礎          飼        糧         組        成

Table  1.   Composition    of     basal    diet.

原                               料 Ingredient
玉  米  粉

大  豆  粉 (44%)

魚        粉 (60%)

麩        皮

磷酸氫鈣

石灰石粉

大  豆  油

食  鹽

L-離胺酸

DL-甲硫胺酸

氯化膽鹼,50%

維生素預混物A

礦物質預混物A

合        計

Ground corn

Soybean meal, 44%

Fish meal, 60%

Wheat branl

Dicalcium phosphate

Limestone, pulverized

Soybean oil

Salt

L-Lysine

DL-methionine

Choline chloride, 50%

Vitamin premix A

Mineral premix A

Total

63.80

24.50

3.00

5.00

1.30

0.75

0.60

0.30

0.10

0..07

0.08

0.30

0.20

100.00

估計值

粗蛋白質,%

代謝能,kcal/kg

含硫胺基酸,%

鈣,%

有效磷,%

Calcutated value

Crude protein, %

ME, kcal/kg

Sulfur amino acid, %

Calcium, %

Available phosphorus, %

 

18.8

2880

0.73

0.86

0.50

A每公斤飼糧添加:Vitamin A 8000 IU; Vitamin D3 1200IU; Vitamin E 10 IU; Vitamin K 2mg;Thiamin 2mg;Riboflavin 5mg;Pyridoxin, 0.2mg;Vitamin B12 0.03mg;Ca-Pantothenate 10mg;Niacin 50mg; Biotin 0.1mg; Folic acid 0.5mg; Choline 300mg; Mn 50mg; Zn 60mg; Cu 10mg, Se 0.15mg;Fe 80mg.

        試驗期間每週秤重一次,試驗結束時採血,經遠心分離後血清供血液生化學分析,血清經血液生化分析儀(Hitachi, 705)分析血清中麩胺草醋酸轉胺A(Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase;GOT)、麩胺丙酮酸轉胺A(Glutamate pyruvate transaminase;GPT)、鹼性磷酸A(Alkaline phosphatase;ALP)之活性及總膽紅質(Total bilirubin)濃度,鴨隻經屠宰、剖腹,記錄心臟、肝臟、脾臟、胰臟之重量。另取右葉肝臟一小塊及右胸肌供組織殘留量分析。

二、黃麴毒素產製及組織殘留量分析

        黃麴毒素粗製品之產製係綜合Shotwell et al. (1966);Smith and Hamilton (1969)及West et al. (1973)之方法。粗製品經磨碎、混勻、採樣後以AOAC (1984)方法萃取及清淨化後,再以性能液相層析法(HPLC)定性定量之。粗製品中所含黃麴毒素B1做為飼糧添加之依據。

        肝臟及胸肌中之黃麴毒素B1殘留量,採用Tarter et al. (1984)之檢驗法萃取,再以HPLC定量之。

三、統計分析

        所有試驗資料使用一般線性模式(General linear model procedure)行變方分析後,再以鄧肯氏新多項變域法(Duncan new multiple range test)比較各組間之差異顯著性。

結果與討論

        水合鈉鈣矽酸鋁(HSCAS)為白陶土的鈉鈣化合物,在美國食品藥物管理局登記為飼料抗結塊劑(anticaking agent),近年來使用普遍。SHCAS在腸道中選擇性吸附黃麴毒素B1 (AFB1),減少黃麴毒素為動物體所吸收。HSCAS之吸附作用僅對黃麴毒素呈特異性吸附,對T-2 toxin (Kubena et al., 1990a),赭麴毒素(ochratoxin)(Huff et al., 1992),Diacet oxyscirpenol (Kubena et al., 1993)等均無吸附效果。

        飼料中含HSCAS與黃麴毒素對0∼3週齡土番鴨生長性能之影響列於表2。試驗期間鴨隻除AFB1 0 ppb+2%HSCAS組及AFB1 400 ppb+0.5% HSCAS組因逃出凍死外,其餘均無死亡。在隻日採食量及全期平均每日增重方面,AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS組均呈顯著(P<0.05)較其他各處理組為差。AFB1 400 ppb+2% HSCAS組隻日採食量、全期平均每日增重及飼料利用效率與對照組間無顯著差異,AFB1 400ppb+0.5% HSCAS組除全期平均日增重較對照組為差(P<0.05)之外,飼料利用效率與對照組間並無顯著效果。平均日增重隨著週齡增加,AFB1 400 ppb+2% HSCAS組有改善的效果。AFB1 0 ppb+2% HSCAS組生長性能影響與對照組間均無顯著差異。據Harvey et al. (1989)之報告指出日糧中添加0.5% HSCAS或2% HSCAS均可改善飼料中AFB1 (3ppm)所造成豬隻的毒害,但以2% HSCAS效果較佳。此與本試驗之結果一致。Kubena et al. (1990a)以肉雞(0∼3)之實驗發現0.5% HSCAS可以改善7.5 ppm AFB1所導致隻日增重和飼料利用率變差的情形,但額外添加0.5%活性炭(charcoal)卻無保護效果。HSCAS之保護機制可能為黃麴毒素B或G系列(AFB1,B2,B2a,G1,G2,G2a)含有β-內脂環(β-ketolactone)或α-雙內酯環(α-bislactone)有較佳之吸附性,而且黃麴毒素之β-carbonyl系統與HSCAS邊位(edge site)之金屬離子形成穩定化合物(Sarr et al., 1990;1991)所致。

表二 飼糧中含水合鈉鈣矽酸鋁與黃麴毒素對0∼3週齡土番鴨生長性能之影響

Table 2. Effect of HSCAS on the growth performance of mule ducklings fed diets containing aflatoxin from 0 to 3 weeks of age.

項           目    Aflatoxin,    ppb

Items   HSCAS,  %

組                  別      Treatment     group 標準機差

SE

0 0 400 400 400
0 2 0 0.5 2
隻日採食量

Daily feed intake (g/bird/day)

平均每日增重

(Avg. daily gain (g/bird/day)

第一週

0-1 wks

第二週

1-2 wks

第三週

2-3 wks

全    期

0-3 wks

飼料利用效率

Food conversion (Feed/ gain)

59.13a

 

 

 

19.09a

 

38.40a

 

49.78a

 

35.76a

 

1.66b

 

59.03a

 

 

 

18.65a

 

37.35a

 

49.88a

 

35.29a

 

1.67b

 

41.33b

 

 

 

11.08d

 

13.36c

 

28.74c

 

17.73c

 

2.33a

 

57.06a

 

 

 

13.41c

 

28.60b

 

39.68b

 

27.23b

 

2.10ab

 

58.56a

 

 

 

16.43b

 

37.67a

 

49.12a

 

34.40a

 

1.70b

 

2.57

 

 

 

1.84

 

4.32

 

9.86

 

3.44

 

0.12

 

a.b.c.d.:同行內數值標有不同字母者,表示差異顯著(P<0.05)。

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

飼糧中含HSCAS與黃麴毒素對0∼3週齡土番鴨相對臟器重量及組織殘留量之影響列於表3。在心臟相對重量方面,AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS組與AFB1 400 ppb+0.5%HSCAS組顯著較其他處理組為重。而AFB1 400 ppb+HSCAS組與AFB1 0 ppb+0%HSCAS組間無顯著差異,肝臟及脾臟相對重量,均以AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS組最高,AFB1 400ppb+0.5% HSCAS組對肝臟相對重量之增加並無改善效果,但AFB1 400 ppb+2% HSCAS組時對肝臟及脾臟即有和緩現象。在胰臟相對重量方面,仍以AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS組顯著(P<0.005)較其他處理組為重。Kubena et al. (1991)試驗指出,黃麴毒素B1 1ppm使火雞雛之腎臟、脾臟、前胃及筋胃相對重量增加。此外,Huff et al. (1992)試驗顯示豬隻餵飼含黃麴毒素B1 3.5 ppm時因豬隻體重降低,使得肝臟、腎、前胃及心臟相對重量顯著增加,當日糧中添加0.5% HSCAS可以改善此一情形。Osborne and Hamilton (1981)指出雞隻食入黃麴毒素3ppm時初始心臟、筋胃、脾臟、胰臟重量均降低;但若長時期與黃麴毒素接觸,有胰臟腫大之現象。此與本試驗之土番鴨長期接觸AFB1之結果相似。
表三 飼   糧  中  含  水  合  鈉  鈣  矽  酸   鋁  與  黃  麴  毒  素  對  0  ∼   3  週  齡  土  番  鴨  相  對  臟   器  重  量  及  組  織  殘  留  量   之  影  響

Table 3.   Effect    of    HSCAS    on     the    relative    organ     weight    and    aflatoxin     tissue    residue    of     mule    ducklings    fed     diets    containing    aflatoxin     from    0    to    3     weeds     of     age.

項          目  Aflatoxin,   ppb

Items HSCAS, %

組                         別   Treatment  group 標準機差A

SE×10-4

0 0 400 400 400
0 2 0 0.5 2
-相對臟器重量 (Relative organ weight) -
心臟/體重(×10-3)

Heart weight/Body weight

肝臟/體重(×10-2)

Liver weight/Body weight

脾臟/體重(×10-3)

Spleen weight/Body weight

胰臟/體重(×10-3)

Pancreas weight/Body weight

6.94c

 

2.89b

 

1.05c

 

5.41b

 

7.15c

 

2.95b

 

1.21c

 

5.54b

 

11.28a

 

4.27a

 

3.74a

 

7.23a

 

9.65ab

 

4.10a

 

2.34b

 

6.00b

 

8.42bc

 

3.58ab

 

1.43c

 

5.80b

 

0.19

 

0.92

 

6.81

 

0.13

 

  ─── 組織殘留量(Tissue residue) ───  
肝臟之B1殘留量

Aflatoxin residue in lever, ppb

胸肌之B1殘留量

Aflatoxin residue in breast muscle, ppb

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0.021

 

0

 

0.004

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0.312

 

 

A 數值×10-4

a.b.c.:同行內數值標有不同字母者,表示差異顯著(P<0.05)。

Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

        黃麴毒素作用之標的器官為肝臟。Bryden and Cumming (1980)試驗指出雞隻黃麴毒素中毒時,肝臟有不同程度之脂肪浸潤(fatty infiltration)及肝細胞退化。Merkley et al. (1987)與Huff et al. (1986)均指稱初期黃麴毒素症因肝細胞退化使肝重降低,當持餵與黃麴毒素時肝臟明顯腫大,肝重、體重比顯著提高。

        在組織殘留量方面,肝臟中AFB1殘留以AFB1 400ppb+0% HSCAS組最高(0.021ppb);AFB1 400 ppb+0.5% HSCAS組亦有少量殘留。而AFB1 400 ppb+2%HSCAS組則無殘留,顯示2% HSCAS可充分吸附AFB1。由此一結果推測可能與HSCAS和AFB1之間機會性接觸有關。在胸肌殘留量,各處理組均無AFB1檢出。以白肉雞(沈等,1987)、土番鴨(沈等,1988)與有色肉雞(吳等,1990)之試驗發現胸肌中無殘留,僅肝臟少量殘留,此外;吳等也指出生長豬(吳等,1988)及肥育豬(吳等,1989)餵飼黃麴毒素僅肝臟中殘留少量,肌肉亦未檢出。以上報告與本試驗之結果相吻合。

        飼糧中含HSCAS與黃麴毒素對0∼3週齡土番鴨血液生化值之影響列於表4。在總膽紅質及鹼性磷酸A各處理組間無顯著差異,此一結果與Kubena et al. (1990b)之結果一致。在麩胺草醋酸轉胺A(GOT)及麩胺丙酮酸轉胺A(GPT)活性方面,AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS組之GOT活性均高於其他處理組,而0.5%或2% HSCAS添加均可見改善之效果。在GPT活性方面,AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS組之GPT活性均顯著高於其他處理組(P<0.05),而0.5%或2% HSCAS添加亦有改善之效果。Manning et al. (1990)指出黃麴毒素使得雞隻血中GPT及GOT活性升高。由於GPT為存於肝細胞中之特殊轉胺A;肝細胞受損時,細胞膜通透性增加使血中GPT活性隨之升高,而黃麴毒素對肝之損害具特異性,故以GPT較為敏感。Harvey et al. (1989)試驗報告指出黃麴毒素3ppm餵與生長豬四週,GOT、GPT活性顯著升高,而日糧中添加0.5%或2% HSCAS時GPT活性下降。

表四   飼   糧    中   含   水    合   鈉   鈣   矽   酸    鋁   與   黃   麴   毒    素   對   0   ∼   3    週   齡   土   番   鴨    血   液   生   化   值    之   影   響

Table 4. Effect of HSCAS on the blood biochemical index of mule ducklings fed diets containing aflatoxin from 0 to 3 weeks of age.

項 目 Aflatoxin, ppb

Items   HSCAS,  %

組                  別      Treatment     group 標準機差

SE

0 0 400 400 400
0 2 0 0.5 2
總膽紅值(mg/ml)

Total bilirubin

麩胺草醋酸轉胺A

GOT* (U/L)

麩胺丙酮酸轉胺A

GPT* (U/L)

鹼性磷酸

AALP* (U/L)

0.123

 

46.10b

 

39.10b

 

435.20

 

0.121

 

47.52b

 

40.47b

 

412.32

 

0.118

 

97.44a

 

63.17a

 

461.67

 

0.106

 

62.72ab

 

41.11b

 

450.55

 

0.153

 

67.41ab

 

42.94b

 

439.70

 

0.014

 

9.95

 

6.61

 

6.67

 

*GOT:Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase;GPT:GlutamatePyruvateTransaminase;ALP:Alkaline Phosphatase

a.b.:同行內數值標有不同字母者,表示差異顯著(P<0.05)。

        Means in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05).

        綜合本試驗之結果顯示,飼糧中0.5%或2% HSCAS可以降低黃麴毒素400 ppb 對土番鴨之危害,但以2% HSCAS 添加量最佳,且此一添加量對土番鴨之生長性能並無不良之影響。Chung et al. (1990)試驗指出HSCAS不影響錳、維生素A及B2之吸收,但會降低鋅的利用率。Chung and Baker (1990)也指出0.5%或2% HSCAS對植酸磷或無機磷之利用並不影響。是否對其他營養分之吸收有負面影響仍待探討。

誌   謝

        本試驗承行政院國家科學委員會經費補助(HSC83-0117-C-197-007-B),謹此致謝。

參考文獻

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Efficacy   of    Hydrated   Sodium   Calcium   Aluminosilicate    Against   the   Aflatoxicosis   of    Mule   Ducklings

Yeong-Hsiang Cheng(1), Yu-An Lin(1), Der-Nan Lee(1) and Fu-Yu. Wu(1)

Received Oct. 7. 1994; Accepted Nov. 24. 1994

ABSTRACT

        The objective of this study was to investigate the use of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) to minimize the detrimental effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on mule duckling, based on their growth performance, relative visceral organ weight, blood biochemical index and aflatoxin residue in tissues.

     Four hundred duckling were randomly divided into five groups which were fed diets containing AFB1 0 ppb +0% HSCAS (control), AFB1 0 ppb +2% HSCAS, AFB1 400 ppb+0% HSCAS, AFB1 400ppb +0.5% HSCAS, or AFB1 0 ppb +2% HSCAS.

    The results showed that 400 ppb AFB1 decreased growth performance, increased the activities of GOT and GPT in serum, and increased the relative visceral organ weight (P<0.05). The addition of 2% HSCAS could overcome these adverse effects completely, but 0.5% HSCAS could not.

        Trace amounts of AFB1 were detected in the liver of mule ducklings fed diets containing AFB1 400 ppb and AFB1 400 ppb + 0.5% HSCAS. No AFB1 residues were detected in the breast muscle of all treatments. These findings suggested that 2% HSCAS could modulate the toxicity of aflatoxin in mule ducklings in animals. (Key Words: Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, Aflatoxicosis, Mule Ducklings)

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(1) Department of Animal Science, National I-Lan Institute of Agriculture and Technology.

 




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